The way that computers are connected to each other on a network is topology. This is basically a Physical layout of the network (physical layout). The physical layout is how computers, printers, and other devices are connected to each other on the network. The network system was developed by combining different computers. The main purpose of this coordinate system is to use the necessary information and exchange of resources, and to do these tasks requires a well-controlled path or medium, which may be a cable or some other special system, which ensures information from beginning to end. Sure exchange. Network design is basically the right design and management of information-exchange data.

Network topologies

How each computer is interconnected and forming a network is called network topology. The network topology determines how data and information will flow between every station on the network. The main purpose of the computer network is to create data and information in less time between two or more computers Increase efficiency by exchanging and sharing each other’s assets. computers to create networks Interpersonal interconnectedness in a particular structure with the help of some sorting medium.

Logical topology:

The logical topology of the logical way to transfer data to a network system is called network logical topology. The primary design in network management is, that it is reasonable and capable of obtaining an accurate physical form, it is considered as a logical topology. Logical topology provides the basic infrastructure idea for the network.

Physical topology:

The physical state of the logical way to transfer data to the network system and the visible physical infrastructure, the combination of the two, is called network physical topology. Adaptable system for data transfer in network management useful resources-All of these network physicals Topical.

Physical topology can be divided into the following categories, namely:

  • Bus topology
  • Ring topology
  • Star topology
  • Hybrid topology
  • Completely connected or mesh topology.
  • Tree topology etc.

Bus topology:

Bus topology is used if you want to network between small and easily installed and low cost. A top cable goes directly to the bus topology and connects to each computer. Here the main cable that goes from one end to the other is called the bus. There are terminators on both sides of the bus that absorb the electric signal.

The following figure shows the bus topology.

Bus topology

In normal transport systems, just a solitary link is utilized in the corner with no kind of electronic gadget, for example, a repeater or intensifier, so the sign starting with one PC can go legitimately then onto the next PC.

So this topology is called passive topology. When a computer sends a message for the computer to another corner, the message is transmitted through the signal cable and reaches all the computers. The computer for which it is sent only receives the message and others simply discard the packet, without paying any attention to it.

Only one computer can send a message at the bus topology. When the computer is sending a message on the corner, others have to wait until it is finished. When his message is sent, another computer can send the message. So as the number of computers in this network increases, the network performance deteriorates. Of course, this problem also occurs in the Star and Ring topologies.

Star topology:

In the Star Topology, the cable comes from all the computers and connects to a central location. A central location is a device, called a concentrator or hub. In this topology, all the computers are connected in one place, this is called concentrated topology. This topology is quite useful if you plan to expand the network. By simply increasing the number of hubs it can be easily extended to the network.

Star Topology

In Star Topology, if the computer wants to send a message to another computer, it sends the signal directly to the hub. The hub sends the signal to all computers or to that destination computer. If the network is broadcast-based, then the signal from the hub will go to all the computers. And if it is a switched network then there is no hub or switch, it will send the signal to that particular computer. 

Various types of cable can be used in Star Topology. Depending on which type of cable to use, special hubs will be needed. The coaxial cable and twisted pair cable can be used at the corners as well as at the corners.

Ring topology:

Ring Topology
Figure: Ring Topology

In a ring topology, one computer is connected to another and the last computer is connected to the first computer. In this way, it creates a ring. Each computer gets equal rights in terms of data flow. Such topology is used to create high-power networks. Every computer gets equal rights here because of the huge benefits of such a network and it is applicable to everyone when the network performance is reduced due to more computers. Ring topology is called active topology.

In this topology, if the computer wants to send a message to another computer, it will go to the nearest computer. The computer will see whether the message is for him or not. If it is not for him, he will send the message to the next computer, thus reaching it. Each computer amplifies that signal and sends it to the next computer. And in this topology, data packets always flow in the same direction (usually clockwise). According to the bus network, there is no need to use a terminator, as there is no open end.

Token Ring Topology
Figure: Token Ring Topology

Token Ring Topology:

A special type of ring network is the token ring network. There is a method called token passing on the token ring network. This includes a brief message, known as a token that revolves around the ring. The token can send data to the computer network when it is near it. Once the data is sent, the token will be released again and it will rotate. The computer that needs to send data will capture that token and send the data.

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
Figure: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

Passing this token happens very quickly. A token is a 200-meter diameter ring that can rotate more than 10,000 times a second. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) or feed network is developed using such ring topology.

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