INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) ADDRESSING

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Internet Protocol (IP) is a numeric label assigned to each device connected to a computer network. The Internet Protocol (IP) address is used to communicate through the network. In a nutshell, an IP address is the node of a network or the host connection’s logical identifier. Each host in the IP network is assigned a specific number and this number is IP (Internet Protocol). There are two types of IP. IPv4 and IPv6.

IPv4

IPv4 is Internet protocol version 4. This is the 4th version of Internet Protocol and the core protocol of the standard Internetworking system.

It was created by ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) for the first version of IPv4 in the 5th. IPv4 is 32 bit. This is a dotted-decimal number of 32 bits. This is a logical address. Which has 4 octets and the value of each is 8 bits. IPv4 is a 32-bit address space through which around 1 billion addresses can be used. In this era of information technology, numerous network devices are being connected in a very short time with the internet and one IP address is used for each device. According to network researchers, IPv4 is almost on the verge of extinction. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) created a new version called IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6). The networks we are currently using on our mobile computers and the IPv4 networks.

properties of IPv4

IPv6

IPv6 is a space of 128 bits that address around 340 Undecillion (Undecillion means 1 more 3). IPv6 is 64 bit. It is a hexadecimal number of 128 bits. This is a logical address. Which has 8 octets and the value of each is 16 bits. In the meantime, the use of IPv6 has started in many places. The transition from IPv4 to IPv6 resulted in both protocols being used on the Internet. And to simplify the process, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has developed several systems.

IPv6 addressing structure

The systems are:

  • Dual-Stack
  • Tunneling
  • Translation

Dual-Stack: Dual-Stack is a method by which IPv4 and IPv6 Protocol can be used on anyone’s network simultaneously.

Tunneling: Tunneling is a method whereby packets of IPv6 can be transmitted through the IPv4 network.

Translation: This method uses a translation method called NAT64 to communicate between an IPv4 and an IPv6 Protocol device. In NAT64, packets are translated from the IPv4 address to the IPv6 address and from an IPv6 address to the IPv4 address.

Classification of IP:

IP Class IP Range De-fault Subnet Musk Network ID / Host ID Network Possible Usable Address
A 0-127 255.0.0.0 Net.Host.Host.Host 2^7=128 2^24-2=16,777,214
B 128-191 255.255.0.0 Net.Net.Host.Host 2^14=16,384 2^16-2=65534
C 192-223 255.255.255.0 Net.Net.Net.Host 2^21=20,97,152 2^8-2=254
D 224-239 N/A N/A N/A N/A
E 240-255 N/A N/A N/A N/A

We will now know how IP classes work.

Class A

Network Host Host Host
8 Bit 8 Bit 8 Bit 8 Bit

The IP of Class A starts from 0, ends at 127.

The first Bit of IP addresses that begin with Binary 0 are Class A IPs. In the case of such IP, the first 8 Bit network Bit and the remaining 24 Bit are Host.

If the network Bit is less than Host Bit then it is assumed that the IP address of Class A.Examples: 10.0.0.1 to 126.255.255.254

Class B

Network Network Host Host
8 Bit 8 Bit 8 Bit 8 Bit

The IP of Class B starts from 128, ends at 191.

The first 2 Bit values ​​of this IP address will be 10. In case of such IP, the first 16 Bit will be Network Bit and the remaining 16 Bit will be Host Bit.

If the number of Network Bit is almost equal to Host, then it should be assumed that the IP address of Class B.

Examples: 128.1.0.1 to 191.255.255.254

Class C

Network Network Network Host
8 Bit 8 Bit 8 Bit 8 Bit

The IP of Class C starts from 192 and ends at 223.

The first 3 Bit values ​​of this IP Address will be 110. In case of such IP, 24 Bit Network and 8 Bit Host.

If the number of network Bit is higher than Host, then you need to select Class C IP Address.

Examples: 192.0.1.1 to 223.255.254.254

Class D

This is a special type of IP class called Multicast Network. This type of IP is used to find all the routers on a Host Network.

The IP of Class D starts from 224, ends at 239.

Examples: 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255

Class E

Class E IPs are commonly used in research, IPs in Class E start from 240 and end at 255.

Examples: 240.0.0.0 to 254.255.255.254

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